THE MONTESSORI PEDAGOGY
Maria Montessori describes her work and method in many of her works.
Its pedagogy is based on the following foundations :
- The child has an absorbing mind. It is an innate quality in children because they are naturally explorers of their environment, courageous workers "curious about everything, capable of extraordinary concentration and ready to absorb everything like sponges absorb water." It is this form of intelligence peculiar to the young child. The child has the faculty of "absorbing" all that surrounds him and of constructing his personality with what is offered to him and denies him his environment.
- The external manifestations of this faculty are particular and transitory sensibilities called Sensitive Periods. Sensitive periods are the means of appropriation and understanding of one's environment. They are interior and unconscious for the child, of limited duration and concern all children on earth.
- The educational response to the absorbing mind of the child consists of indirect help through the preparation of an environment adapted to the size and strength of the child that invites him to an autonomous activity through the provision of material specially designed for its development.
- The child can therefore choose his activities according to a deep internal motivation, which corresponds to his sensitive periods. Since children do not all have the same needs at the same time, the availability of the material with the possibility of choosing it and using it for as long as they wish allows their interests to be satisfied, the time needed to Construction of intelligence according to the rhythm proper to each child. Thanks to the possibility of self-correcting Montessori equipment, the child, by exercising regularly and observing, focuses his attention and gradually develops his capacity for concentration.
- The discovery by the senses of the world around us ensures a fine understanding and inscribed for life in our bodies. Our development is based on this principle since the origin of man, Mr. Montessori has highlighted it with his material.
- Observing children's cognitive and sensory development will allow them to adjust their pace of learning.
- In order to achieve this harmonious development, it is important that the children who are going through the same fundamental stages are brought together in the same space. In the Children's Homes and the elementary classes the children are joined by three years of age - 3/6 years - 6/9 years - 9/12 years. Cohabitation promotes mutual aid, mutual respect and exchanges between children. This childish community experiences a social life and lays the groundwork for the construction of a well-understood future social life.
- The uniqueness of the material allows them to apprehend patience without comparing their abilities.
- Thanks to the possibility of self-correcting Montessori equipment, the child, by exercising regularly and observing, focuses his attention and gradually develops his capacity for concentration.
- The lessons are individual. Brevity must be their main characteristic. Another feature: simplicity. "Lessons must be stripped of everything that is not the absolute truth. The teacher must avoid getting lost in unnecessary words. Words should be the simplest you can find.
- The free choice of the activities presented to him will enable him to acquire autonomy, concentration and self-confidence.